Previous researchers have found that special education teacher shortages are pervasive and exacerbated by federal policies regarding “highly qualified” teacher requirements. The authors examined special education teacher personnel data from 2 federal data sources to determine if these sources offer a reliable and valid means of determining teacher shortages. Findings indicate that critical discrepancies exist at the state and national levels due to discrepancies between data sources, definitions, and missing data points. In addition, the number of not highly qualified special educators fluctuated widely by data source, possibly indicating an exponential rise in the use of long-term substitutes. Increased collaboration and coordination between state and federal agencies is recommended to ensure valid and reliable teacher qualification data collection and analysis.