We used pupil-level data from the National Pupil Database in England to conduct a longitudinal analysis of the identification of moderate learning difficulties (MLD) and social, emotional, and mental health difficulties (SEMH) among 550,000 pupils ages 5 to 11 years. Survival analysis was used to determine the hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first identification, controlling for prior attainment and social-emotional development at age 5 as well as socioeconomic variables. For MLD, the overrepresentation of Black Caribbean and Pakistani pupils compared with White British pupils was eliminated following age 5 controls, and the predominant picture was of ethnic-minority underrepresentation. For SEMH, Black Caribbean and mixed White and Black Caribbean (MWBC) pupils continued to be overrepresented even after age 5 controls (HR = 1.36 and 1.44, respectively), although this was not true for the larger group of Black African pupils, who were underrepresented in the adjusted analyses (HR = 0.62), as were most other ethnic-minority groups. The results indicate most ethnic-minority groups are underrepresented for special educational needs after adjusting for pupil characteristics on entry to school, though this varies by ethnic group and type of need.